King Hassan II, who ruled from 1961 until his death in 1999, arrested, kidnapped, and tortured thousands of political opponents, especially during the failed coup attempts of 1971 and 1972. Dispositions finales relatives à la moudawana de la famille A propos. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998. [37] Ibid. [24], Opponents to the law assert that the reforms represent an imposition of legislation that does not enjoy broad support, pointing out that opinion polls often favor urban populations and are not representative of Moroccan society as a whole. [25] Ibid. [30] Ibid. [27] The argument that follows is that the reforms are essentially superficial because it is in the government's interest to favor the maintenance of the status quo over the potential conflict that would arise were the reforms to be implemented on a full scale. [22] Abiad. "This Time I Choose When to Leave: An Interview with Fatna El-Bouih." Vital Voices. PDF. Le Maroc est un vrai modèle arabo-africain en termes de respect des droits de la femme. Polygamie : une tendance qui gagne de plus en plus de terrain au Maroc. [13] As the reform campaign garnered attention and supporters, it also gained some enemies in its fight for women's equality. [1] Touimi-Benjelloun, Zineb. The group of activists fighting to reform the Moudawana needed to persuade the Moroccan Parliament to change the family code in order to make it more equitable toward women. [34] Sater, James. However, King Mohamed VI, who took the throne in 1999 and continues to rule the country today, has showed hints of being less repressive than his father. [9] Supporters point out that the reforms indicate a democratization of Moroccan society on two fronts: because of the sense of pluralism and debate they sparked in the public sphere, and because of their movement towards an individual-based rights system, as opposed to one based on collective rights. 19 Dec. 2003.; Abiad, Nisrine. 2009. Once a woman comes of age, she does not need a marital tutor (a male relative, usually the father who speaks on her behalf). [11] It did this in part by codifying the system of existing patriarchal, kin-based social structures within the newly independent state. Children in custody must be given “suitable accommodation,” the terms of which must be settled within a month of any dispute. "Morocco: A Look At Women's Rights 5 Years After Reforms." The alliance was organized by Islamists, including the Islamist parliamentary party Parti de la Justice et du Développement (PJD), who rejected the UAF's secular approach because they believed it to be contrary to Islamic family values. Women, the State, and Political Liberalization: Middle Eastern and North African Experiences. Nevertheless, discriminatory laws still exist, especially with regard to marriage, divorce, custody of children and inheritance. As a result of newly created civil society organizations, including many women's organizations, and increased international attention on women's rights, modest reforms to the Mudawana were enacted in 1993 under King Hassan II. Lorestani youth stuck…, Alireza Ghandchi, who lost his wife and 2 children in the shooting down of #PS752 speaks at gravesite of Rosstin Mo…, #یلدای_٩٩ #یلدای_خونین Malchiodi, Beth. 3) Cooperative-building grows from empowerment gained during the “Imagine-Moudawana” experience and supports women’s cooperatives and their development to create greater financial independence, expand networks, and promote change in women’s roles in their communities. #شب_یلدا, Zvan, Katja. [24] The march was intended to raise awareness of a range of issues relating to women's rights. Additionally, the King created a Ministry in Charge of the Condition of Women, Protection of the Family, Childhood and the Disabled to advance gender equality, he consulted with women's rights activists, and he appointed a commission to revise the Moudawana. The top-down nature of the reforms has resulted in many members of the judicial system simply ignoring the new laws’ provisions. 25 J'ai déjà fait allusion, dans ce qui précède, au code de la famille du Maroc, la Moudawana. Slymovics, Susan. "A New Family Law in Morocco." 9 Oct. 2005. "Progressive or Conservative, Women Influence Islam.". DG Dispositions générales. Maroc Les MRE débattent de la Moudawana. PDF. "The Politics of the Reform of the New Family Law (the Moudawana). [17], The creation of the PAIWD, and the stir it caused, effectively created two opposing political factions among Morocco's political elite, one identifying as “modernists” lobbying against the influence of Islamic extremists and the other identifying as traditionalists who insisted that newly proposed reforms were rooted in Western interference. Morocco’s economy is based on small and medium-sized enterprises, tourism and agriculture. [15] Ibid. 2009. "A New Family Law in Morocco." An Overview . Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs. In the words of Latifa Jbabdi, the reform achieved "a peaceful revolution for women."[37]. Moreover, a woman can stipulate in her marriage contract that her husband may not take a second wife, and a first wife must consent to the second. [6] The debate extended beyond the realm of the political elite, however, eventually sparking enormous rallies in March 2000. London: British Institute of International and Comparative Law, 2008. La Moudawana ou Code du statut personnel marocain est le droit de la famille marocain codifié en 1958 sous le règne du roi Mohammed V. Ce code a été amendé une première fois en 1993 par Hassan II, puis révisé en février 2004 par le Parlement marocain et promulgué par le roi Mohammed VI le 10 octobre 2004. Development, in many cases includes a process of securing access to rights, and their enforcement, whereas the existence of rights enhances development processes. Cette 2ème édition s’articulera autour du … ", Slymovics, Susan. On October 10, 2003, the king presented Parliament with a plan to replace the old Mudawana entirely, on the commission's recommendation, describing the new law code as “modern” and intended to “free women from the injustices they endure, in addition [to] protecting children’s rights and safeguarding men’s dignity.”[11] In doing so, he emphasized that the reforms were not intended to address women's rights exclusively, but to address issues associated with the family as a whole. Critics of the reforms point to the elitist roots of the movements that advocated for the reforms, the influence of Western secular principles, and the many barriers to the law's implementation within Moroccan society. [14] Ibid. Beginning in the 1990s, women's rights organizations in Morocco gained leverage and influence by incorporating progressive elements from academia, publishing, and government, and using rhetoric that drew from Islamic sources as well as the language of national development and the rights of women and children. [24] Ibid. A man's daughter's children as well as his son's children have the right to inherit property. 6 septembre 2020; Islam = Islamisme (10) 22 août 2020; Comment égorger un mouton dans sa salle de bains 12 août 2020; Archives Archives. [9], Despite numerous calls for reform throughout the 1960s and 70s, it was not until 1982 that women's legal status was brought to the forefront of public debate in Morocco. Moreover, while over 14,000 divorce proceedings were initiated by men, over 26,000 were initiated by women in 2007; before the reforms, women did not have the right to initiate these proceedings. [13], In 1991, this was manifested in concrete political action as l’Union de l’Action Féminine (UAF), a women's group within one of Morocco's Marxist–Leninist political parties and consisting mainly of professional, middle class women, collected one million signatures on a petition calling for Mudawana reform and presented it to the Prime Minister. #محمدرضاشاه #جهرم #شاه #پهلوی, ویلیام نلسون جوی عضو آکادمی ملی مهندسی، آکادمی هنر و علوم آمریکا است. [6] By the time the plan was introduced, King Hassan II had died and his son, King Mohammed VI, had taken the throne. PDF. November 9, 2017. At the same time, the king took several steps viewed as promoting women's status in Moroccan society, including mandating that 10 percent of seats in the lower house of the Moroccan parliament be reserved for women and promoting several women to senior administrative positions within his government. [33] An important medium for disseminating their message was the ‘women's press,' consisting of newspapers such as 8 Mars and Kalima, which discussed taboo topics like domestic violence, single motherhood, and homosexuality. Moudawana .. [7] Malchiodi, Beth. One of the clearest indications came on March 12, 2000, when the reformists organized a march to take place in Rabat in recognition of International Women's Day. United Nations Development Fund for Women. In 1992, they launched the One Million Signatures campaign, which aimed to gather a million signatures on a petition to reform the Moudawana. Vision and Motivation. Opposition parties rarely have the opportunity to assert themselves; any groups who criticize the monarchical system are harassed by government officials. [6] Many argue that the electoral system's main function is to serve as a means for the monarchy to create and manipulate a dependent class of political elites. [5] King Hassan II's death in 1999 led many activists to believe that a new age in Moroccan politics was dawning; King Mohammed VI was rumored to be much more open to change than his father had been. Press coverage of the two actions noted the differences between them; the Casablanca march, in opposition to the PAIWD, was generally more gender-segregated, with more uniformity of dress, whereas in Rabat, participants of different genders mixed more freely. Robinson, Helah. [6], Five years after the new Mudawana laws were passed, the president of the ADFM noted that opposition to its reforms was still present throughout the judicial system. [35] Ghazalla. [22] The campaign was highly successful and the UAF exceeded their target by collecting more than a million signatures, a considerable achievement given Morocco's total population of only 25 million.[23]. 2008. May 2007. Towards the end of his reign, in the late 1990s, King Hassan II opened up the political process to opposition parties, such as the Socialist Party (USFP) and the Parti du Progres et du Socialism (PPS). Its first version was written in 1957-8 by a group of ten male religious scholars (Ulama) working under the auspices of the monarchy; its substance drew heavily on classical Maliki law. [9] For her membership in an illegal Marxist group known as "March 23", Jbabdi was imprisoned from 1977 until her trial and release in 1980. The UAF was opposed by the ulama, Islamic scholars and arbiters of religious law, as well as other religious groups that supported the existing Moudawana as a religious text. Women's eNews. [34] However, since more than half of the female population was illiterate at the time when these newspapers developed, there was a need for other forms of outreach, ones with a more widespread impact for building support across the country. Gal Kramarski Former HAF Intern and Graduate Student Introduction. Ministere des Habous et des affaires islamiques - Rabat - Maroc Tel: (212) 5 37 76 68 51 - (212) 5 37 76 68 01 - Rabat - Maroc Tel: (212) 5 37 76 68 51 - (212) 5 37 76 68 01 Although there were calls for reform to the family law in the 1960s and 70s, its religious origins made amending it a challenge, and no serious movement for reform emerged until the 1980s. This sparked fierce debate and opposition within Moroccan political elites and, to a somewhat lesser extent, Moroccan society, and culminated in two rallies in Casablanca and Rabat in March 2000 – one in support of reform and one in opposition to it. While this incident served as a major roadblock for the UAF, King Mohammed VI's arrival onto the political scene was a blessing in disguise. [26] Ibid. [15], Jbabdi worked to engage her opponents in debate by incorporating a religious foundation to her arguments. This process also arguably reduces Islamic women to a single, universal category that does not recognize their individual choices. Faculty of Oriental Studies: University of Oxford. [2] He ordered that a new code be drafted in consultation with some women's groups, to be submitted to him for approval. [11] In particular, the Moroccan minister for religious affairs opposed the plan, and the Moroccan cabinet became divided over the issue. [15], In 1969, King Hassan II created the Union Nationale des Femmes Marocaines (UNFM), an organization with the stated goal of improving the social and economic status of women in Morocco. Supporters of the reforms point to broad support for them among Moroccan society, especially among women, and cite the new law as a successful example of a progressive reform framed in indigenous, Islamic principles. Comme indiqué au … PDF. To accomplish their goal, the UAF needed to garner support from the Moroccan people and prove to the government that reforming the Moudawana was an important issue for the majority of Moroccans. [27] Ibid. Join us for in Rabat, Marrakech, and the Atlas Mountains April 19-25, 2020. [6] Despite educational campaigns undertaken by various governmental and non-governmental actors (often supported by donor nations such as EU member states), levels of awareness about the reforms remain low, especially in many rural areas, where misinformation about the details of the changes has often filled the knowledge gap. Nous avons créé ce blog afin d’aider les personnes à faire leurs achats sur les sites de Ecommerce. Mehdi 15/09/2020 23:18. il est pas marocain, c'est completement illegal au maroc. Historically, this distinction, which must be conferred by the government, has provided a way for the Moroccan regime to exert a measure of control over civil society organizations, as those whose agendas conflict with that of the government typically find it difficult to obtain utilité publique status. Infos région. It concerns issues related to the family, including the regulation of marriage, polygamy, divorce, inheritance, and child custody. [9] In response, King Hassan II created a commission (which he chaired) composed of 21 religious scholars – only one of them female – and a representative of the Royal Court for the purpose of reforming the Mudawana according to the Islamic tradition of ijtihad. The proposed reforms drew not only on principles derived from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights but also on the Islamic principles of equality, justice, and tolerance. 19 Dec. 2003. The first wife may also petition for divorce if the husband takes another wife. She is best known for her work to help improve women's rights through reforming the Mudawana, Morocco's legal code governing family life.She also served as a member of the House of Representatives from 2007 to 2011. Magharebia. [3] Ibid. Die Moudawana wurde 2004 vom marokkanischen König Mohammed VI. [26] The King responded with a series of actions that would ease the path to reform, including a royal decree that the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women be given legal force. [30], The UAF reached out to and worked with many other organizations and groups of people to achieve the reforms; alliances with other women's rights NGOs, political parties, independent politicians, social workers, and academics enabled the UAF to succeed in its mission. Civil Society and Political Change in Morocco. - 16 septembre, 2020 - 11:24 «A Hoceima», le conservatoire de musique et le Grand théâtre s’apprêtent pour l’ouverture - 23 août, 2020 - 12:10 Yet the Moudawana, the family code that governs areas of family law such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, and child custody, gave few rights to women when it was first adopted in 1958, reflecting centuries-old customs. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad. DOWNLOAD HERE. [20], Logistically, the new code created a new system of family courts to handle family law matters, presenting the complex challenges of establishing a new, nationwide system from scratch while provoking opposition among adouls, the local legal officials who previously had jurisdiction over marriage and family matters. When she was 14, she became involved in a student movement campaigning for democratic reforms in Morocco. Traditionalists felt only the king had the right to change the law and the modernists felt that the king had the right to exercise ijtihad and ultimately decide the role that Islamic law would play in Morocco's legal framework. Sharialaw that focuses more on custom . [9], There are social, legal, logistical, and political barriers to the actual implementation of many of the reforms in the new Mudawana. [11] Their primary aims were to change the discriminatory elements of the code, including polygamy and the principle that a husband has ultimate authority over his wife. [17] Ibid. Human Rights Watch. Mots clés conditions féminines el othmani femmes Maroc moudawana. [11] Ibid. Freedom House. 15 La centralisation de la question de la Moudawana nous semble engager une double extériorisation des féministes par rapport à la scène politique et à la scène sociale qui apparaît comme la marque de fabrique du « féminisme descendant » majoritairement à l’œuvre au Maroc. [9], This commission resulted in a number of changes, implemented in 1993, which instituted provisions that (among other things) required a bride's verbal consent to marriage, eliminated a father's right to force his daughter to marry, and mandated the obtainment of a judge's permission in cases of polygamy and a husband's repudiation of his wife. modawanat sayr maroc. Abingdon: Routledge, 2007. Dieu ait son âme -, qui, dès le recouvrement par le Maroc de sa pleine souveraineté, s'est attaché à la promulgation d'un code du statut personnel (Moudawana) qui devait constituer un premier jalon dans l'édification de l’Etat de droit et dans le processus d'harmonisation des … Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001. However, the UAF held debates with these organizations to convince them that the Moudawana reforms were worth fighting for.[32]. Elle a ouvert, cependant le champ pour cette catégorie de la société que sont les femmes à demander, un droit qui leur était inaccessible jusqu’à alors, le divorce. La critique théâtrale au Maroc en deuil - 15 novembre, 2020 - 12 Anouar El Joundi: le soldat des planches n’est plus! Women cannot be married against their will, though if they wish to designate a male relative to act as their marital tutor, they may. [9] However, some scholars have argued that just because the movement was started among elites, it does not necessarily follow that they are incongruent with grassroots interests. In the end, the civil society associations that lobbied for the reforms had to work within the existing authoritarian system, appealing directly to the king for change rather than working through a democratic political process. Jordan, Egypt and Tunisia have started discussions on modifying their family laws in similar directions. Al3omk « Nous avons tiré la sonnette d’alarme à plusieurs reprises. [13] In addition, the Mudawana is the only section of Moroccan law that relies primarily on Islamic sources, rather than Spanish or French civil codes, which gave it a greater sense of immutability and contributed to the difficulty of reforming it later on. 30 June 2009. [28] Ibid. After a series of demonstrations, educational seminars, government lobbying, and a One Million Signatures petition campaign, King Hassan II was forced to take action. However, on the same day, an alliance of opponents to the movement organized a march in Casablanca, where the women, all veiled, marched in separate lines from the men. [31] After the group decided in 1990 that their primary aim should be to reform the Moudawana, it took almost two years to gain the support of other women's rights organizations, who feared that the Moudawana could interfere with other women's rights issues being pursued. 19 novembre 2020 à 18 h 47 Safi: un détenu condamné pour terrorisme met fin à ses jours; 19 novembre 2020 à 18 h 27 Maroc/Covid-19: 77 nouveaux décès, dont 25 à Casablanca; 19 novembre 2020 à 17 h 32 Ben Abdelkader répond favorablement aux demandes de certaines fonctionnaires; 19 novembre 2020 à 15 h 45 Covid-19: l’Oriental inquiète ! نظام جمهوری اسلامی دور تازه‌ای ازنقض آزادی بیان شهروندان در فضای مجازی را ک…, حذف خودکار تاریخچه یوتیوب [5] Ibid. World Report 2010. informal justice system as well as . [23] Two-thirds of Moroccan women surveyed said they felt the new Mudawana had improved women's status in Morocco, and 50% of men agreed. To raise support from the general public, the movement organized educational seminars and established women's shelters. Of the divorces granted, almost 30% were divorce by mutual consent – which did not exist before the 2004 reforms. [9][26] Judges also retain the right to oversee mandatory reconciliation in the case of divorce, which many women's organizations fear will be used to limit women's autonomy during divorce proceedings. [9][15] He also indicated that he sought to “reflect the general will of the nation” rather than impose legislation from above, and described the reform as not a victory for one side or the other. "Morocco Country Report." Women's dissatisfaction with the Mudawana, however, reflects a belief that it is not implemented widely and successfully enough to address the problems of women's rights. [9], The proliferation of civil society organizations flourished even more in the 1990s, due in part to King Hassan II's active support for them, which reflected a worldwide trend of civil society promotion. Lors de l'élaboration de la loi, en 1957, certains savants s'étaient. The royal family of Morocco, which claims descent from the Prophet Muhammad, therefore enjoys a sense of political legitimacy rooted in Islam and also has the power to dictate the form that Islam takes within Moroccan society. [6] The PAIWD's main areas of focus were education, reproductive health, the involvement of women in development, and empowerment through legal reforms and a strengthening of political power. a mon avis il risque gros devant le loi marociane (la prison) car si il est francais uniquement, l'adoul ne pouvait pas le marier sans ccm au consulat de france auparavant. Une loi pour les avocats, un décret pour les magistrats et un lifting pour la Moudawana… Pour le ministère de la Justice, cette année ne sera pas de tout repos. 8 Oct. 2005. Generally speaking, the monarchy, Islam, and the territorial integrity of the Moroccan nation are considered to be the nation's three inviolable "sacred institutions." After the reforms were announced, the United States government, the World Bank, and Human Rights Watch all released statements of support for the new laws. Sous l'impulsion du roi, la réforme de la Moudawana - le code de la famille - a marqué un tournant dès 2004 au Maroc. Le Royaume est signataire de la Convention sur l’élimination de toutes les formes de discrimination à l’égard des femmes (CEDEF). "The Moroccan Family Code (Moudawana) of February 5, 2004." This unofficial English translation of the 2004 Moroccan Family Law (Moudawana) was prepared by a team of English and Arabic speaking lawyers and a professional Arabic-English Moroccan translator at the Global Rights head Office in Washington and their field Office in Morocco. “Chiffres clés: Dates clés” [Key figures: Key dates], Autoroutes du Maroc, accessed May 20, 2020, https: ... Family Code (Moudawana) of the Kingdom of Morocco 2004, pmbl. [16] It was in this environment that calls for reform to the Mudawana first began to gain traction. فردی که #آپارات را تاسیس کرده بود خود اعتراف کرده بود آپارات نان #فیلترینگ یوتیوب را می‌خ…, نقض آزادی وکلای دادگستری در فضای مجازی [33] Ibid. Dec 8, 2020 Spread the love Rabat – Women must be equal partners in peacebuilding and conflict prevention efforts, Morocco’s Minister of Foreign Affairs Nasser Bourita said Tuesday. This Book was ranked at 16 by Google Books for keyword administration des soins de santé à l'étranger.. Book ID of La Moudawana, le nouveau droit de la famille au Maroc's Books is rSkJDuzIeF0C, Book which was written byOmar Mounirhave ETAG "AgzP2zTAVXY" The Maliki school has been the dominant source of Islamic jurisprudence in Morocco since the 10th century. [4], Morocco has been described as a “liberalized autocracy. "Country Report: Morocco." Most women's organizations in Morocco receive external funding, whether from the government, various Moroccan political parties, or international actors such as USAID, the European Development Bank, and the World Bank, which has left them open to criticisms that their agendas are tied to the sources of their funding and therefore compromised. ... مدونة السير بالمغرب 2020. Sharia, Muslim States, and International Human Rights Treaty Obligations. All of Morocco's major women's organizations have positioned their work within an Islamic framework in some way, drawing on the work of Islamic scholars to inform their agendas. Aujourd’hui, la légalisation partielle de l’IVG au Maroc. [9] A state's family or personal status law has wide-ranging implications for citizens' daily lives, but many gender equality advocates point out its particular significance for women, as it governs the age at which they may be married, issues of divorce and child custody, and their right to work and travel outside the home. They have also been conducting demonstrations and providing education to the public, aiming to ensure that the reforms are understood and are incorporated into daily life. Touimi-Benjelloun, Zineb. [28] The bombings shocked the Moroccan people, making religious fundamentalism unpopular and enabling reformists to take advantage of this change in Morocco's political climate to spread their message. [8] Robinson, Helah. Die Autorin Narjis Lamzari analysiert anhand von Interviews, die sie vor Ort durchgeführt hat, die aktuellen Veränderungen, die sich auf Grund der neuen Moudawana in Marokko ergeben haben. Abingdon: Routledge, 2007. "H E Latifa Jbabdi." Selat Gibraltar memisahkan Spanyol dari Maroko dengan rentang air 13 kilometer (8,1 mil). It was given the legal status of a utilité publique, an important designation for Moroccan civil society organizations, which allows them to raise funds and be exempt from taxes (similar to non-profit status in the United States). Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs. [9] Many Islamic groups have emphasized that they do not oppose reform of the Mudawana in general, but reject what they view as reforms rooted in externally imposed principles, such as those based in international human rights law, as opposed to exclusively Islamic origins. Priority in terms of child custody goes first to the mother, then the father, then the maternal grandmother, or to whomever a judge deems the most qualified relative. Tous les ans, un millier de mariages polygames sont célébrés. [2], In terms of social barriers, there is a significant gap between formal legal reforms in theory and their practice in reality. Association des femmes du Maroc, 2004, L’égalité entre les Hommes et les Femmes, point de vue de la population marocaine, Rapport d’analyse, Rabat. [9] As a result, this traditional form of religious authority gives the monarch the political legitimacy to arbitrate the agenda and decisions of a modern, multiparty government.[10]. [11] Moreover, many scholars and activists have pointed out that there was strong support for reform from both sides of the debate; the conflict lay in the source of the reforms and in questions of cultural authenticity.[19]. "[8], Latifa Jbabdi's long history of activism before becoming involved with the UAF shows her commitment to feminism and reform.

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